C. Carbon Capture (optional, also other membrane applications in energy conversion/storage)

It will be necessary to perform up- and down-stream processing of various process streams. This will draw the streams into their desired form, e.g.:

  • Ultrapure Water is needed for electrolysis where availability is critical (offshore, desert)
  • Separation of H2 from N2, if Ammonia is used to store H2
  • Separation of H2 from CH4 and others, if H2 is mixed with natural or biogas
  • Cleaning of CO2 before electrochemical conversion

Membranes will play an important role in a number of sectors.

  1. Direct energy storage
    • Lithium ion battery
    • Vanadium-redox-flow battery
  2. Hydrogen economy
    • Hydrogen generation
      • Water for electrolysis
      • PEM-, AEM-electrolysis
      • SOEC
    • Hydrogen storage and transport
      • As Ammonia
      • In (natural) gas cavern / pipeline
    • Hydrogen back transformation
      • PEM-, AEM-fuel cell
      • SOFC
      • Humidifier for water management in fuel cell
  3. Other energy transformation
    • Direct (electro-)chemical conversion of CO2